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The Glossary includes abbreviations, technical terms, acronyms, and definitions of many assessment tools. You may access it two ways. You can either scroll down to find the word or you can click on the letter of the alphabet.

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A

 

AAA.Area Agency of Aging, the local non-profit agency designated by BEAS to coordinate and provide services to elderly people, pursuant to the federal Older Americans Act. Maine has several regional AAAs. AAMR American Association for Mental Retardation.

 

AAP.American Academy of Pediatrics.

 

ABA. Applied Behavior Analysis, a therapeutic intervention for children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

Accessibility, environmental. Buildings, structures, programs, transportation services, public services, etc., which are designed or modified to enable persons with disabilities (physical, sensory, and/or cognitive) to utilize them without undue difficulty. This term includes accommodations or practices such as ramps to enter and exit buildings, TTY relay services for telephone use, lifts on public transportation, the provision of personal assistance, the provision of Braille print or otherwise adapted documents, and other accommodations consistent with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

 

Accessible. Modified or designed so that persons with limited mobility (in wheelchairs or with crutches, for instance) can move into and around the structure or building.

 

ACCH  Association for the Care of Children’s Health (national parent/professional organization)

 

ACDD.  Accreditation Council for Services for people with developmental disabilities.

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). An injury to the brain that has occurred after birth and which may result in mild, moderate or severe impairments in cognition, speech-language communication, memory, attention and concentration, reasoning, abstract thinking, physical functions, psychosocial behavior, or information processing.

 

ACT.Assertive Community Treatment, a type of case management service offered through OACPDS.Acute Care. In a hospital setting which includes surgery, doctor visits, x-rays etc.

 

ADA. Americans with Disabilities Act. Federal legislation protecting the civil rights of persons who meet the defined eligibility for employment, state and local government activities, public transportation, public accommodations, and telecommunications. The ADA defines an individual with a disability as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such impairment. The highlights include Title I: Employment, Title II: State and Local Government Activities/Public Transportation, Title III: Public Accommodations, and Title IV: Telecommunications.

 

ADA Consulting. Americans with Disability consulting provides professional direction with regards to accessible design, construction as well as direction in the areas of employment and "reasonable accommodations."Adaptive Behavior.

A parameter of classification that refers to one’s ability to be socially appropriate and personally responsible.

 

ADD. Administration on Developmental Disabilities (federal DHHS).

 

ADL. Activities of Daily Living, a set of physical abilities (e.g., bathing, dressing, walking, transferring in and out of a chair or bed, toileting, and eating) essential to independent living.

 

Adult Basic Education.  A program offered by community colleges for adults who have not completed an eighth-grade education in the public schools. The major objective of the program is to increase basic skills in reading, writing, and computation, with an emphasis in developing critical thinking skills.

 

Adult Day Care. Provides non-medical care and supervision to adults in need of personal services, protection, assistance, guidance, or training. Adult Day Care assists its participants to remain in the community.

 

Adult Day Health. Provides an organized day program of therapeutic, social activities, health activities and services to adults with functional impairments, either physical or mental, for the purpose of restoring or maintaining optimal capacity for self-care.

 

Adult Developmental Vocational Program (ADVP).  A service providing vocational training and developmental activities for adults with developmental disabilities preparing them to live and work as independently as possible. Training and activities are designed to enhance the independence, productivity, and community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities.

 

Adult Education. Any services or instruction below the post-secondary level for individuals at least 16 years of age, who are not enrolled or required to be enrolled in secondary school under state law.

 

Adult Foster Home.  Private homes with family-style living, offering room, board and physical care for up to five people 24 hours a day. Adult Foster Homes are inspected, monitored and licensed by SDSD or by the local Area Agency on Aging. A variety of care and assistance can be offered at these sites.

 

Advocacy. Active support or argument in favor of something such as a cause, idea, or policy OR a program or situation in which agencies or individuals speak or act on behalf of other individuals or groups.

 

AFCH. Adult Family Care Home.Affective Disorder.

A disorder of mood (feeling, emotion). Refers to a disturbance of mood and other symptoms that occur together for minimal duration of time and are not due to other physical or mental illness.

 

Age Appropriate. Activities, materials, curriculum, and environment consistent with the chronological age of the child being served.

 

AIMS. A parent/infant research project (USM).

 

Air Carrier Access Act. Prohibits discrimination in air transportation by air carriers against qualified individuals with physical or mental impairments. It applies only to air carriers that provide regularly scheduled services for hire to the public. Requirements address a wide range of issues including boarding assistance and certain accessibility features in newly built aircraft and new or altered airport facilities.

 

AMHI. Augusta Mental Health Institute, a state-operated mental health hospital, under the authority of DHHS.

 

Amniocentesis. The testing of the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus to detect congenital disabilities.

 

Apraxia. Inability to perform purposeful voluntary movements, the nature and mechanism of which are understood in the absence of motor or sensory impairment.

 

ARC. Association for Retarded Citizens OR Aroostook Residential Center.

 

ARCH Adult Residential Care Homes. Adult Residential Care Homes (ARCH) provide for the social and daily needs of individuals rather than medical needs. Residents are usually people who are functionally semi-independent, but need assistance in the activities of daily living. Dietary, housekeeping, social and recreational programs and medical monitoring are the primary functions of these facilities. ARCHs are designated as Type I or Type II. Type I care homes are limited to 5 or fewer residents in a family home. Type II care homes are institutional settings and may care for as many as 50 to 60 residents.

 

Architectural Barriers Act. Requires that buildings and facilities that are designed, constructed, or altered with federal funds or leased by a federal agency comply with federal standards for physical accessibility. ABA requirements are limited to architectural standards in new and altered buildings and in newly leased facilities. They do not address the activities conducted in those buildings and facilities. Facilities of the US Postal Service are covered by the ABA.

 

ARF. Association of Rehabilitation Facilities (a national professional organization).

 

Arthritis. Wear and tear on the cartilage cushion in joints can lead to the development of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive illness; fingers, toes, knees, spine and hips are particularly susceptible. Pain is the most common symptom, although joints may be stiff in the morning.

 

Articulation. The ability to make specific sounds: i.e., the "g" in gum, the "b" in bear, the "s" in snake. Articulation is the component most often affected in children with speech disorders of unknown cause.

 

Articulation Disorders. Difficulties with the way sounds are formed and strung together, usually characterized by substituting one sound for another (wabbit for rabbit), omitting a sound (han for hand), or distorting a sound (shlip for sip).

 

Articulation Errors. A speech problem seen in children, which may take one of the following forms: distortions, omissions, substitutions, and/or additions.

 

ASA. Assessing Services Agency, the private agency under contract with OES to assess the needs of persons seeking long term care services (Goold Health Systems).

 

ASM. Autism Society of Maine.

 

Asperger's Syndrome. Asperger's Syndrome, also known as Asperger's Disorder or Autistic Psychopathy, is associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and is characterized by sustained impairment in social interaction, development of restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities. Children with Asperger's may exhibit lucid speech before age 4 and unusually good grammar, though with repetitive speech patterns.

 

Assessment - Children. 1. A collecting and bringing together of information about a child's learning needs, which may include social, psychological, and educational evaluations used to determine assignment to special programs or services; a process using observation, testing, and test analysis to determine an individual's strengths and weaknesses to plan, for example, his or her educational services. Also referred to in some instances as "evaluation". 2. As related to early childhood programs, assessment is the ongoing observations and monitoring of progress by qualified personnel throughout the period of a child's eligibility to identify the child's unique needs; the family's strengths and needs related to development of the child; and, the nature and extent of early intervention services that are needed by the child and the child's family to meet the needs of the child.

 

Assessment Team. A team of people from different areas of expertise who observe and test a child to determine his or her strengths and weaknesses.

 

Assisted Living. Assisted Living provides housing along with supportive services for persons needing assistance with personal care or medications. They are typically homes with six or more private apartments. They are fully wheelchair accessible and offer full dining room services, housekeeping and call systems for emergency help. Registered nurse consultation is available. Physical care and additional health care supervision and assistance can be provided in your own apartment.

 

Association of Certified Social Workers (ACSW). A professional organization whose membership requires a certification by the academy of Certified Social Workers. To be ACSW certified requires 3,000 hours of paid supervised work beyond the MSW and an examination.

 

AT. Assistive Technology. The systematic application of technology, engineering methodologies or scientific principles to meet the needs of and address the barriers confronted by persons with developmental disabilities in areas including education, employment, supported employment, transportation, independent living, and other community living activities.

 

Assistive Technology Device. Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Examples of assistive technology devices include computerized communication boards, automated readers, augmentative hearing devices, toys with adapted switches, modified household gadgets, wheelchairs, and computer-based devices that give enhanced images to people with vision loss or that translate voice input into writing for people with hearing loss or deafness.

 

At Risk. A term used with children who have, or could have, problems with their development that may affect later learning. Typically refers to infants and young children under the age of three who do not have a diagnosis of a developmental disability but 1) have a physical or mental condition which usually results in a developmental disability, or 2) for whom there is documented evidence of familial, prenatal, neonatal, or post-neonatal factors which are associated with developmental delay or atypical development.

 

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (ADD, ADHD). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition in which a child exhibits signs of developmentally inappropriate hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. These characteristics are usually present before the age of seven. ADHD is similar to "Attention Deficit Disorder", except emphasis is placed on the hyperactivity.

 

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). A condition characterized by when a person is easily distracted and has difficulty staying focused on an individual activity for any period of time. ADD affects 3-5% of all students, and is not recognized as a separate category of disability under federal educational legislation (IDEA). See also "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" as these terms are often used interchangeably.

 

Audiologist. A professional educated in the study of normal and impaired hearing. The audiologist determines if a person has a hearing impairment, what type of impairment it is, and how the individual can make the best use of remaining hearing. If a person will benefit from using a hearing aid or other listening device, the audiologist can assist with the selection, fitting, and purchase of the most appropriate aid and with training the individual to use the aid effectively.

 

Audiology. 1. The science or study of hearing. 2. Detection and management of aural (hearing) factors associated with communication.

 

Auditory. Pertaining to hearing.

 

Auditory Association. The ability to associate verbally presented ideas or information.

 

Auditory Blending. The act of blending the parts of a word into an integrated whole when speaking.

 

Auditory Closure. The ability of the learner to formulate or recognize a word when one or more parts are not heard (ex: "andy bar" can be heard as candy bar) or when continuity of sound is interrupted by gaps (ex: c-a-t can be heard as cat).

 

Auditory Discrimination. The ability of the listener to distinguish likenesses and differences between sounds.

 

Auditory Figure Ground. The ability to remember what has been heard (or presented) for both long and short periods of time; and also having the ability to remember the order (sequence) in which it was heard.

 

Auditory Perception. The ability to interpret or organize the sensory data received through the ear knowing the child does not have a hearing loss.

 

Auditory Processing. A type of learning disability in which the person has difficulty understanding what one hears, or problems distinguishing one sound from another.

 

Autism. A developmental disability caused by a physical disorder of the brain appearing during the first three years of life. Symptoms include disturbances in physical, social and language skills; abnormal responses to sensations; and abnormal ways of relating to people, objects and events; unusually high or low activity levels; insistence that the environment and routine remain unchanged; little imaginative play; and repetitive movements such as rocking and spinning, head banging, and hand twisting. The cause of which is unknown.

 

Autistic. Displaying characteristics of autism. See "autism" for more specific information.

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B

Barrier Free. Building, facility, or area that is fully accessible to persons with mobility limitations; may be used more generally to refer to programs and services which are readily accessed by persons with any type of disability.

 

Behavior Checklists. Objective protocols that permit an observer to count or check for the existence or absence of a given behavior or set of behaviors through direct observation of the individual being evaluated.

 

Behavior Disorder (BD). 1. A term applied to children who display behaviors, over long periods of time, that deviate significantly from socially acceptable norms for their age and situation. 2. A term applied to people who cannot care for themselves, are unable to function in society, and/or are a threat to themselves or others because of behavioral excesses or deficits.

 

Behavior Management/Modification. To develop, strengthen, maintain, decrease or eliminate behaviors in a planned or systematic way.

 

Behavior Modification. A technique of changing human behavior based on the theory of operant behavior and conditioning. Careful observation of events preceding and following the behavior in question is required. The environment is manipulated to reinforce the desired responses, thereby bringing about the desired change in behavior.

 

Behavior Shaping. A general term referring to the process of changing a person's behavior, often developing new behaviors that have not yet been evident, using one of the several procedures involved in behavior therapy.

 

Behavioral Contract. An agreement, written or verbal, between two people stating that if one behaves in a certain manner (such as completing a homework assignment), the other (teacher, parent, etc.) will give him or her a specific reward.

 

Behavioral/Emotional Disorder (BED). A combination of behavioral and emotional disturbances. Individuals with this disorder are not able to control their emotional disturbances. Individuals with this disorder are not able to control their emotions enough to maintain behavior within an acceptable range. Students who are mildly disturbed may be served through continued placement in regular classes with supporting service from an itinerant teacher. See also "Emotional Disturbance".

 

BERS. Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, a tool used by BDS to measure a child’s emotional and behavioral strengths.

Bilateral. Pertaining to or affecting both sides of the body (two-sided). Example: having a hearing impairment in both ears.

 

Bipolar Disorder. 1. A mood disorder with elevated mood, usually accompanied by a major depressive episode. 2. Or, more specifically: A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression; formally called manic depressive psychosis, circular or mixed type. A mild form of bipolar disorder is sometimes labeled cyclothymic disorder. Bipolar disorder may be subdivided into manic, depressed or mixed types on the basis of currently presenting symptoms.

 

BMHI. Bangor Mental Health Institute, a state-operated mental health hospital under the authority of DHHS.

 

Borderline Personality Disorder. Instability in a variety of areas, including interpersonal relationships, behavior, mood and self-image. Interpersonal relationships are often intense and unstable, with marked shifts of attitude. Frequently there is impulsive and unpredictable behavior which is potentially physically self-damaging. Mood is often unstable with marked shifts from normal to dysphoric or with inappropriate intense anger or lack of control of anger. A profound identity disturbance may be manifested by uncertainty about self-image, gender identity, long-term goals or values. There may be chronic feelings of emptiness or boredom or brief episodes of psychosis.

 

BR. Bureau of Rehabilitation.

 

Brain Injury. Any level of injury to the brain often caused by an impact with the skull. Mild symptoms include persistent headaches, mood changes, dizziness, and memory difficulties. Severe head-injury symptoms are more obvious: loss of consciousness; loss of physical coordination, speech, and many thinking skills; and significant changes in personality.

 

BRAP. Bridging Rental Assistance Program, a transitional rental assistance program for persons waiting for longer term housing subsidies.

 

BRS. Bureau of Rehabilitation Services (DOL), the state agency responsible for providing vocational rehabilitation and assisted living services to persons with disabilities.

 

BSS. Bureau of Social Services.

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C

CAFAS. Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Score, an assessment tool used by BDS to measure a child’s level of psychological functioning across five domains.

 

CALOCUS. Children and Adolescent Level of Care Utilization System, the assessment tool used by BDS for determining the needs of children and adolescents with mental illness.

 

Cancer. Skin, prostate, breast, and colon-rectal are examples of cancers that can occur in older persons. Symptoms, management, and prognosis differ greatly from person to person.

 

Capitation. A set amount of money received or paid out that is based on membership rather than on services delivered and usually is expressed in per member per month (pmpm) units.

 

CARF. Commission Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (sets standards and accredits nationally).

 

Care Coordination. A collaborative process that assesses, plans, implements, coordinates, monitors, and evaluates the options and services required to meet an individual’s health needs, using communication and available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes. Defined by the AAP as “a process that links children with special health care needs and their families to services and resources in a coordinated effort to maximize the potential of children and to provide them with optimal care.”

 

Case Management. Client-centered professional level service designed to assist, identify, and obtain services needed. They are responsible for overall planning, coordinating care and evaluating outcomes. Inpatient case managers are usually registered nurses.

 

CASSP. Child and Adolescent Service System Project.

 

CDS. Child Development Services (DOE), a unit within the Division of Special Services, responsible for the early intervention and other services provided to children from birth to age 5.

 

CDW. Child Development Worker.

 

CEC. Council for Exceptional Children (a national professional organization).

 

Central Auditory Processing. Perception of sound. It includes skills such as attention to sound, long and short term memory for sound, selective listening, and localization of sound.

 

Cerebral Palsy (CP). A condition caused by damage to the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly following birth. Cerebral Palsy is characterized by an inability to fully control motor function, general physical weakness, lack of coordination, poor balance, speech impairments, and perceptual difficulties. Each characteristic can range from mild to severe, and the difficulty may involve all four extremities, one arm or leg, or the arm and leg on one side of the body.

 

Certified Nurse Aide (CNA). A Nurse Aide who has taken special training and passed proficiency testing. The certification is given by the state and entitles them to work in a facility or private home.

 

CF. Cystic Fibrosis.

 

CFI. Child and Family Institute.

 

CHC. Community Health Center.

 

Childhood Depression. See "Major Depressive Episode".

 

Childhood Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia appearing before puberty. Frequently manifested by autism and withdrawn behavior; failure to develop an identity separate from the mother's; and general unevenness, gross immaturity and inadequacy in development.

 

Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs (CYSHCN). Children and youth under age 21 whose serious or chronic physical or developmental conditions require extensive preventive and maintenance care beyond that required by typically healthy children. Health care utilization by these children exceeds the statistically expected usage of the normal child adjusted for chronological age. These children often need complex care requiring multiple providers, rehabilitation services, and specialized equipment in a number of different settings.

 

Circle of Support (also called circle of friends). A group of people that meets regularly to help plan, design and support ways for a person with developmental disabilities to meet everyday challenges and to achieve their personal goals. A circle is a natural way to support people with developmental disabilities to achieve real control in their lives. Circles are based on the belief that the community is a place where everyone belongs and can include friends, family, classmates, co-workers, professionals, and other community members.

 

Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA). Authorizes the US attorney general to investigate conditions of confinement at state and local government institutions such as prisons, jails, pretrial detention centers, juvenile correctional facilities, publicly operated nursing homes, and institutions for people with psychiatric or developmental disabilities. Its purpose is to allow the attorney general to uncover and correct widespread deficiencies that seriously jeopardize the health and safety of residents of institutions. The attorney general does not have authority under CRIPA to investigate isolated incidents or to represent individual institutionalized persons.

 

Class Member. A member of a class action lawsuit, who is entitled to certain protections and rights under the decision or settlement of the lawsuit. In the case of the AMHI class action lawsuit, a "class member" is anyone who was a patient of AMHI on or after January 1, 1988. In the case of the Pineland class action lawsuit, a "class member" is anyone who had been involuntarily confined at Pineland on or after July 3, 1975 or who had been conditionally released from Pineland and in a community placement on or after July 3, 1975 (with some exclusions).

 

Clinical Psychologist. A mental health professional trained to administer psychological tests, evaluate and treat emotional disorders. Cannot prescribe medication. See "Psychiatrist".

 

Clinical Social Worker. A mental health professional trained to provide services to individuals, families and groups. Cannot prescribe medication. See "Psychiatrist".

 

Closed Captioned. Written words appearing across the bottom of the television screen stating what is being said; requires a built-in or external decoder on the television to receive the closed-captioned transmission from the studio.

 

Cluttering. A speech disorder characterized by excessively rapid, disorganized speaking, often including words or phrases unrelated to the topic.

 

CMHC. Community Mental Health Center.

 

CMRS. Corrections Management Record System, the information system within the Department of Corrections.

 

CMS. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the federal agency responsible for administering Medicare and the federal government’s role in the Medicaid program. Formerly known as HCFA.

 

CNA. Certified Nursing Assistant.

 

Cognitive. A term that describes the process people use for remembering, reasoning, understanding, problem solving, evaluating, and using judgment. Cognition more simply, is what a person or child knows and understands, or the process of knowing.

 

Cognitive Development. The development of skills necessary for understanding and organizing the world, including such perceptual and conceptual skills as discrimination, memory, sequencing, concept formation, generalization, reasoning, and problem solving.

 

Cognitive Functioning. Refers to the level of proficiency in thinking, processing information, and knowledge.

 

Communication. The process of transmitting or receiving thoughts or messages from one person to another in a way that they both understand (facial expression, body language, gestures, sign language, speech pictures, written words, etc.).

 

Communication Disorders. The inability to communicate effectively due to either a hearing loss, a speech disorder, or a language disorder.

 

Communication Skills. Consciously linking the meaning and the purpose of what (we say) is said to what is (we do) done.

 

Community Alternative Program (CAP-MR/DD). The Medicaid-waiver funding stream provides rehabilitative and support services in the community to individuals of all ages with developmental disabilities who meet its eligibility requirements. People who are eligible for institutional programs under the Medicaid “Intermediate Care Facilities” program for people with mental retardation or other developmental disabilities (ICF-MR/DD) are eligible to receive individualized, community services and supports under CAP-MR/DD as an alternative to ICF-MR/DD. CAP-MR/DD provides services reimbursable under Title XIX, as defined and authorized by the state’s Medicaid Home and

Community Based Services (HCB) waiver. This waiver funding stream assists eligible individuals in securing the services and supports necessary for living in their homes and communities.

 

Community Inclusion. The full participation by an individual in chosen, meaningful, local activities, organizations, and groups in his/her community.

 

Community Program/Service. A local educational, vocational, housing or other service that is within the community rather than in an institution.

 

Community Rehabilitation Program. A facility that serves persons with disabilities through the use of supervised work and various rehabilitative activities (e.g., vocational evaluation, basic education, personal care training, etc.). The goal of the service is two-fold: 1. to assist individuals in becoming employed in regular employment in the community, and 2. to employ persons who are viewed as not capable of competitive employment in the near future.

 

Complaint. A complaint is any expression of dissatisfaction, including dissatisfaction with the administration, claims practices, or provision of services, which relates to the quality of care provided by a provider pursuant to the plan’s contract. A complaint is part of the informal steps of a grievance procedure.

 

Comprehensive Service Delivery System. The integration of a full range or services which are easily accessible to individuals with developmental disabilities and their families.

 

Compulsion. An insistent, repetitive, intrusive and unwanted urge to perform an act that is contrary to the person's ordinary wishes or standards. Since it serves as a defensive substitute for still more unacceptable unconscious ideas and wishes, failure to perform the compulsive act leads to overt anxiety. Compulsions are obsessions that are still felt as impulses.

 

Compulsive Personality Disorder. Restricted ability to express warm and tender emotions; preoccupation with rules, order, organization, efficiency and detail; excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of pleasure, indecisiveness.

 

Computer-assisted Instruction. The use of computers to provide instructional, rehearsal, and testing.

 

CON. Certificate of Need, a regulatory review required for hospitals, nursing facilities, and certain other health care facilities, before expanding, building, or reducing the facility’s capacity.

 

Conceptual Disorders. A disturbance in the thinking process and in cognitive activities, or in the ability to formulate concepts.

 

Concrete. Describes an idea or an image of a situation, symbol or object that can be perceived by the senses and derives from an experience that makes it familiar.

 

Concrete Mode. A person's learning or cognitive style characterized as learning most efficiently by use of objects and tangible items.

 

Conditioning. The process in which new objects or situations elicit responses that were previously elicited by other stimuli.

 

Conduct Disorder. A condition characterized by repetitive and persistent patterns of behavior that violate either the rights of others or age appropriate social norms or rules. Such behaviors may include overt physical aggressions, disruptiveness, negativism, irresponsibility, and defiance of authority.

 

Conductive Hearing Loss. A type of hearing impairment that occurs when sound is not transmitted efficiently through the ear canal, ear drum, or tiny bones of the middle ear, reducing the loudness or clarity of sound that is heard. Frequent colds, allergies, or certain childhood illnesses may cause a blockage of sound due to fluid in the middle ear, and lead to temporary hearing loss or even permanent damage. Build up of ear wax; inflammation or infection in the middle ear canal; heredity; and birth defects may also cause conductive hearing loss. This kind of hearing loss can often be medically or surgically corrected.

Confabulation. Fabrication of facts or events in response to questions about situations or events that are not recalled because of memory impairment. It differs from lying in that the individual is not consciously attempting to deceive. Confabulation is common in organic amnestic syndrome.

 

Congenital. Present at birth. A condition or disease existing at birth that is not necessarily caused by inheritance.

 

Congenital Aphasia. The inability from birth to comprehend or produce language. This cannot be explained by sensory or motor defects or diffuse cerebral dysfunction.

 

Consent Decree. An enforceable judge’s order based upon an out-of-court agreement between opposing parties to a lawsuit. In the AMHI class action lawsuit, the judge issued a consent decree that made DHHS's Office of Adult Mental Health Services out-of-court agreement to build a system of community services enforceable in court.

 

Consumers. A term sometimes used for persons with disabilities, or parents or guardians of persons with disabilities, who may use or need services or supports. More current terms in use include “participants” or “customers”.

 

Continence. Bowel or Bladder Control.

 

Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRC). Combine independent living, assisted living, and a nursing facility under one roof.

 

Continuous Care. Home care services that are provided on an extended basis.

 

Coordination. Acting together in a smooth way. Several muscle groups working together in harmony.

 

COT. Committee on Transition (state committee)

 

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). Professional organization for persons serving exceptional school age children.

 

Counseling. Advice or help given by someone qualified to give such advice or help (often psychological counseling).

 

CP. Cerebral Palsy.

 

Criteria. The information that is described to demonstrate mastery of a skill. See also "Criterion-referenced Assessment".

 

Criterion-referenced Assessment. Referring to assessment that compares a person's performance to some specific established level (the criterion) or a specific degree of mastery; his or her performance is not compared with that of other people.

 

Cross Categorical Definitions. An approach to grouping individuals with learning and behavior disorders on the basis of the severity of the problem rather than traditional categorical labels.

 

CSC. Client Services Coordinator

 

CSS. Community Support Services

 

Custodial Care. Care that primarily deals with activities of daily living like bathing, dressing, and supervision.

 

Cystic Fibrosis. An inherited condition characterized by chronic respiratory and digestive problems due to excessive mucus production.

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