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The Glossary includes abbreviations, technical terms, acronyms, and definitions of many assessment tools. You may access it two ways. You can either scroll down to find the word or you can click on the letter of the alphabet.

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QIC. Quality Improvement Council (DHHS), the state and regional councils with consumer and family representation responsible for assisting DHHS with systems planning and needs assessment.


Quadriplegia. Paralysis or partial paralysis of all four limbs of the body (both arms and both legs). The legs are usually affected more than the arms.


Qualified. 1. When a person has met State approved or recognized certification, licensing, registration, or other comparable requirements that apply to the area in which the person is providing a service. 2. A person with a disability who: (a) with reasonable accommodation; (b) with respect to services, meets the essential eligibility requirements for receiving the services in question.


Quality Assurance. A systematic approach to ensuring that a specific standard or level of care is met. QA focuses on inspection, performance of individuals, human errors and correction of failures. (Monitoring) Quality assurance is the function responsible for managing quality.


Quality Improvement. Continuously upgrading and enhancing performance to meet the current and changing needs of the customer. QI develops and effectively uses the skills and abilities o fall employees at all levels. It promotes a common language to facilitate analysis and communication. QI encourages employee feedback, shares with others, and applies lessons learned to future activities.

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Range of Motion. How far you can bend your body parts. More specifically, the range measured in degrees of a circle through which a joint can be moved.


RCCF. Residential Child Care Facility.


RCF. Residential Care Facility.


Reactive Schizophrenia. A type of schizophrenia attributed primarily to strong predisposing and/or precipitating environmental factors; usually of rapid onset and brief duration, with the affected individual appearing well both before and after the schizophrenic episode. Differentiating this condition from process schizophreniform is generally considered more important in Europe than in this country. Scizophreniform disorder is conceptually similar.


Receptive Aphasia. Impairment of receptive language due to a disorder of the central nervous system. See also "sensory aphasia".


Receptive Eye Problems. Disorders associated with the receiving structures of the eye, that is, the retina or the optic nerve.


Receptive Language. Language that is spoken or written by others and received by an individual. The receptive language skills are listening and reading.


Receptive Language Disorders. Difficulties in comprehending what others say.


Recipient. Any state or political subdivision (or instrumentality thereof), any public or private agency, institution, organization, or other entity, or any person that receives federal financial assistance directly or through another recipient (including any successor, assignee, or transferee of a recipient, but not the ultimate beneficiary of the assistance). This term includes persons and entities applying to be recipients.


Recreation Therapist. In long-term care facilities, recreation therapists coordinate activities that are enjoyable, therapeutic and educational – from bingo and pet visiting to birthday parties and pub nights to horticulture and news groups. They attempt to match new residents to facility programs based on their previous hobbies, interests and cultural practices. They work to get people back to independent functioning that will increase their quality of life.


Reflex. 1. Habitual way of responding; ordinarily refers to inborn tendency for a part of the body to respond to a stimulus in a certain way; posture or movement not controlled by the individual. 2. In reference to audiological evaluations, a reflexive response is the early developmental responses to auditory stimuli typically noted 0 to 3 months of age.


Refractive Problems. Visual problems that occur when the refractive structures of the eye fail to properly focus light rays on the retina.


Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW). Such licensure often requires at least two years supervised experiences with a direct client caseload. See also "LCSW".


Registered Nurse (RN). A nurse who, after completing extensive training and passing a State examination, is qualified to perform complete nursing services.


Regular Classroom. Here your child attends the class and school he would attend if he did not have a handicapping condition, working right along with his non-handicapped peers. Consultants, therapists, itinerant teachers, special educators, etc., can provide special instruction in the regular classroom to your child.


Regular Education Initiative. A perspective that places a major portion of the responsibility for educating all mildly and some moderately disabled students with general education.


Rehabilitation. Refers to the process (or programs) aimed at teaching individuals who are recently handicapped the fundamental skills for independence.


Rehabilitation Act. Federal legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs conducted by Federal agencies, in programs receiving Federal financial assistance, in Federal employment, and in the employment practices of Federal contractors. The Act includes Section 504 which states that “no qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under” any program or activity that either receives Federal financial assistance or is conducted by any Executive agency of the United States Postal Service. Regulations include reasonable accommodation for employees with disabilities; program accessibility; effective communication with people who have hearing or vision disabilities; and accessible new construction and alterations.


Rehabilitation Equipment and Supplies. The equipment and supplies that help with any program designed around exercise, guidance, or instruction afforded to those with a particular disability, whether physical, psychological, or social.


Rehabilitation Services. Therapeutic care services for persons with disabilities, usually physical, occupational, recreational or speech therapy.


Reinforcement. Letting a child know they have done well. Praising, giving them rewards, letting them do something special, etc.


Related Services. Services that must be necessary for the child to benefit from special education. May include transportation and supportive services such as speech pathology, audiology, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, early identification and assessment, counseling, interpreters for persons with hearing impairments, medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes, school health services, social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training.


Remedial Readers. Youngsters who need particular assistance in reading instruction; a term that was used earlier for youngsters who might now be known as learning disabled.


Remediation Approach. Pertaining to instruction that focuses on the gaps or deficiencies in a student's repertoire of skills.


Residential Care Homes. Residential Care Homes provide for the social and daily needs of individuals rather than medical needs. Residents are usually people who are functionally semi-independent, but need assistance in the activities of daily living. Dietary, housekeeping, social and recreational programs and medical monitoring are the primary functions of these facilities. Adult Residential Care Homes are designated as Type I or Type II. Type I care homes are limited to 5 or fewer residents in a family home. Type II care homes are institutional settings and may care for as many as 50 to 60 residents.


Residential School Program. An approved, specialized educational program provided in a facility that a child attends 24 hours a day.


Residential Treatment. Live-in facilities that provide treatment and care for children with emotional disturbances who require continuous medication and/or supervision or relief from environmental stresses.


Residual Schizophrenia. A condition manifested by persons with signs of schizophrenia who, following a psychotic schizophrenic episode, are no longer psychotic.


Resource Room. A room separate from the regular classroom in which children with disabilities can receive specialized assistance to reinforce and supplement the regular class instruction. The amount of time that students spend each day in the resource room varies according to individual needs, and he remainder of the day is spent in his or her regular classroom.


Resource Teacher. A specialist who works with children with disabilities and acts as a consultant to their teachers, providing materials and methods to help children who are having difficulty within the regular classroom. The resource teacher may work from a centralized resource room within a school where appropriate materials are housed.


Resources. Internal resources are the strengths, capabilities and motivations of the child and family. External resources are the formal (professionals and agencies), informal (ministers, support groups, volunteers), and natural (friends, relatives) network of the child and family.


Respiratory Therapy. Home health nurses provide treatment, education and training to patients with lung problems. Respiratory home care patients are supplied with needed respiratory equipment such as concentrators, liquid and cylinder oxygen systems, aerosol and drug nebulization equipment, and home ventilator support systems.


Respite Care. Temporary, short-term care for an individual with special needs, such as developmental and physical disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, chronic illnesses, and medical fragility. The primary purpose of respite care is to give relief to families and caregivers from the extraordinary and intensive demands of providing ongoing care.


Rest Homes. A facility or institution where people are cared for. Often synonymous with nursing homes.


Reticular Activating System. The area of the brain stem that is in the control of awareness and attention.


Retirement Communities and Homes. Housing for older adults with amenities such as transportation and social activities. On-site meals, banking, health screenings, pharmacy and sundry shopping may be available.


Request for Proposals Ritalin. A mild central nervous system stimulant often prescribed by doctors to help in controlling a child's behavior. Possible side-effects are loss of appetite and weight, and lethargy.


Rochester Method. A communication system used with deaf children that combines fingerspelling with speech. Role Playing. The process of letting students rehearse and practice behaviors they are to learn, often pertaining to social behaviors.


Rooting Response. A food-seeking movement which occurs in response to tactile input presented on the lips or cheeks characterized by mouth opening and head turning in the direction of the touch; occurs until approximately 4 to 5 months of age; stronger just before feeding and when the infant is in a position generally associated with feeding. Rote Skill. Habit performance, without meaning, in a mechanical way.



SAD. School Administrative District


SAMHSA. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S. DHHS), the federal agency responsible for administering block grants and other programs supporting services to persons with mental illness or addiction disorders.


SAT. See "Scholastic Aptitude Test" or "Standardized Achievement Test".


Scales of Independent Behavior. A formal, standard assessment instrument for evaluating adaptive behavior.


Schizoaffective Disorder. A depressive or manic syndrome that precedes or develops concurrently with psychotic symptoms incompatible with an affective disorder. Includes some symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia and other symptoms seen in major affective disorders.


Schizoid Personality Disorder. Manifested by shyness, oversensitivity, social withdrawal, frequent daydreaming, avoidance of close competitive relationships and eccentricity. Persons with this disorder often react to disturbing experiences with apparent detachment and are unable to express hostility and ordinary aggressive feelings.


Schizophrenia. A serious mental disorder characterized by verbal incoherence, severely impaired interpersonal relations, disturbance in thought processes, cognitive deficits, and inappropriate or blunted affect. The person may also exhibit hallucinations or delusions.


Schizophreniform Disorder. Clinical features are the same as seen in schizophrenia, but lasting less than six months and longer than one week. This disorder is believed to have different correlates than schizophrenia, include a better prognosis. See also "reactive schizophrenia" and "schizoaffective disorder".


Schizotypal Personality Disorder. The essential features are various oddities of thinking, perception communication, and behavior not severe enough to meet the criteria for schizophrenia. No single feature is invariably present. The disturbance in thinking may be expressed in magical thinking, ideas of reference or paranoid ideation. Perceptual disturbances may include recurrent illusions, depersonalization or derealization. Often there are marked peculiarities in communication; concepts may be expressed unclearly or oddly, using words deviantly, but never to the point of behavioral manifestation include social isolation and constricted or inappropriate affect that interferes with rapport in face-to-face interaction.


Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A college entrance examination taken by high school seniors. See also "Standardized Achievement Test".


School Phobia. An extreme fear of going to school and matters related to school. An anxiety about leaving home and family members may be a related cause.


School Psychologist. A trained professional in testing and mental health and/or psychological services specific to the school environment. They are trained to assess children in academic, social, and behavioral areas. They are the only school personnel with appropriate training for giving intelligence tests like the Stanford Binet or the Wechsler. Besides doing evaluations, school psychologists may develop behavior modification programs, make specific academic recommendations, or provide one-on-one or group counseling for children.


School Social Worker. A social worker specifically trained to work in a school environment.


School Transition to Employment Partnership (STEP). A job training program for eligible students (handicapped, economically disadvantaged, dropouts/potential dropouts/academically disadvantaged, and those with demonstrated barriers to employment, e.g., single parents, adjudicated offenders, etc.) that includes: 1) instruction of the competencies of the employability curriculum, 2) work experiences, on-the-job training, and try-out employment funded through the Job Training Partnership Act, 3) targeted jobs tax credit for employers' training eligible youth, and 4) supportive employment training services provided to students or employers through Special Education, Vocational Education, Vocational Rehabilitation or Social Services. STEP may also include other cooperative education programs, prevocational training programs, special education assistance, and work experience programs designed for students who are eligible for


STEP. LEA's participating in the STEP program must be approved by the Office of Adult, Vocational, & Technical Education and the Department of Labor's Job Training Partnership Office.


Screening. Any rapid, preliminary identification of children who may have a developmental problem, to see if they need further comprehensive testing. Screening areas are usually separated according to skills, personality, aptitude, etc.


SEA. State Education Agency or Sheltered Employment Association.


Secondary Conditions. Those conditions which are a direct result or indirect consequence of a primary disability.


Secondary School Level. The educational level, not beyond grade twelve, at which secondary education is provided as determined under state law.


Section 504. A part of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This section states that no program or activity receiving federal funds can exclude, deny benefit to, or discriminate against any person on the basis of handicap. It also requires access for people who are handicapped to all public buildings. Also known as 504.


SED. See "Serious Emotional Disturbance/Disorder".


Segregated Educational Facilities. Educational facilities that are separate from the mainstream placements of non-handicapped youngsters, often termed "special schools".


Seizure Disorders. A seizure is characterized by involuntary movement or a change in consciousness or behavior. These are symptoms of underlying disorders of the brain. Electrical impulses usually move along a nerve pathway in an organized fashion. A seizure occurs when bursts of unorganized electrical impulses interfere with normal brain function. Seizures may be classified by cause, by area of the brain involved, or by clinical symptoms.


Selective Attention. Attention that often does not focus on centrally important tasks or information.


Self-Advocacy. On an individual level, self-advocacy is speaking and/or acting on one’s own behalf through decision making and exercising one’s individual rights as a citizen of a community. When self-advocates work together, self-advocacy becomes an organized movement of persons with disabilities to unify their individual voices for social and political action, to advocate for their rights as citizens of this country, and to work for services and supports which will assist them in reaching their full potential.


Self-determination. Infuses the core principles of freedom, authority, support, and responsibility into new and existing configurations of services and organizational structures. In practice, it offers individuals who are eligible for developmental disabilities services the opportunity to gain control over their lives by gaining control over a significant amount of funds and other resources available for their support and the freedom to exercise real choice.


Self Esteem. A person's feelings of self-worth. (Think of self esteem as the picture of yourself that you have in your head. Now think of how that picture would change if you didn't always understand what was said, if you failed a test because you misunderstood the directions, etc.)


Self-care Skills. Skills related to hygiene, feeding, dressing, and generally taking care of oneself.


Self-contained Special Education Classroom. 1. A separate classroom where special students spend the majority of their school day, while often being integrated with their nondisabled peers whenever possible, such as in nonacademically-oriented classes and on the playground. 2. A specialized instructional environment for eligible children in need of special education or special education and related services who require intensive instructional procedures.


Self-help Skills. Skills and performance of daily personal care, with or without adaptive equipment, such as dressing, washing, toileting, etc.


Semantics. The component of language most concerned with the meaning and understanding of language.


Senior Housing. Age-restricted housing for older adults who are able to care for themselves and live independently. Usually no additional services such as meals or transportation are provided.


Sensory Aphasia (Receptive Aphasia). An impairment in which the individual has difficulty understanding language because of a sensory deficit.


Sensory Modality. Sensory modality refers to any one of the five sensory avenues for receiving information: seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.


Sensory Motor Integration. The ability to respond positively to sensory-motor treatment programs because kinesthetic, vestibular, and tactile stimulation affect the brain stem and enhance critical functions.


Sensory Seizure. A seizure that is characterized primarily by visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, or emotional sensations.


Sensory Stimulation. Provide input to the different sensory systems to be received, differentiated and interpreted.


Sensory-neural. Pertaining to a sensory nerve.


Sensory-neural Hearing Loss. A hearing impairment caused by lesions of the hair cells in the cochlea and the neurons of the auditory part of cranial nerve VIII.


Sequencing. 1. As it relates to memory; storage and retrieval of information requiring a specified order of input and recall; i.e., counting, days of the week, months of the year, words in a sentence. 2. Knowing and carrying through procedures in a particular order.


Serious Emotional Disturbance/Disorder (SED). When a child or adolescent exhibits behavioral, emotional and/or social impairment that consequently disrupts their academic and/or developmental progress, family and/or interpersonal relationships, and has impaired functioning that has continued for at least one year, or has an impairment of short duration and high severity. Also see "Emotional Disturbance (ED)".


Service Coordination. Assistance provided to persons in gaining access to needed social, medical, vocational, and educational services or supports. Also called “case management”.


Severe and Profound Multiple Disorders. A generic classification of disorders that involve physical, sensory, intellectual, and/or social-interpersonal performance deficits beyond three standard deviations below the interindividual and/or intraindividual mean on the measures being recorded. These deficits are not limited to any given setting, but are evident in all environmental settings and often involve deficits in several areas of performance. Etiologies are more identifiable at this level of functioning, but exact cause(s) may be unknown in a large number of cases. Individuals with functional disorders at this level require significantly altered environments with regard to care, treatment, and accommodation.


Severe Handicap. See "severe and profound multiple disorders".


Sheltered Employment Program. A place of employment for individuals who do not choose to enter the competitive job market or for whom supported employment is not available.


Short Attention Span. An inability to focus attention on a task for a sustained period, often more than a few seconds or minutes.


Siblings. Brothers and sisters of the child, in or out of the natural home.


Sign Language. A form of manual communication in which words and concepts are represented by hand positions, finger spelling, body language, and facial expressions. Sign language includes both American Sign Language (ASL) and Signing Exact English.


Skilled Nursing (SN). The performance of procedures or activities requiring the skill of a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse. These activities may include assessment, education, and administration of medications and treatments. Medicare reimbursable, skilled nursing services include skilled observation, skilled "hands on" intervention, skilled teaching, and management and evaluation of the patient care plan.


Skilled Nursing Facilities. Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNF) provide continuous 24-hour nursing care for convalescent and/or critically or chronically ill residents. RNs, LPNs, and Certified Nurse Aides provide care and services prescribed by physicians with emphasis on medical nursing care. Physical, occupational, and other therapies are offered as prescribed by the patient's physician.


Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Funds available to individuals who have worked and paid into the Social Security system and who are too disabled to work according to Social Security guidelines. This differs from Supplemental Security Income (SSI) generally in that recipients of SSI have not worked previously. For specific information, please contact the Social Security Administration.


Social Skills. Skills related to social interactions with peers.


Social Worker. The social worker assesses social, emotional and personal implications of health changes and institutionalization for patients and their families and helps cope with losses, emotional issues, family problems, financial concerns, depression and behavioral changes. He or she also serves as a patient advocate and links patients and caregivers with community resources, including when discharge is required.


Socially Maladjusted. Having extreme difficulty dealing appropriately with other people.


Sociopath. A term sometimes used to describe persons with extreme disregard for and hostility toward society. A person who is sociopathic is aggressively antisocial and shows no remorse.


Soft Signs. A term used by neurologists to indicate that a child performs in a slightly different way than the average child in certain central nervous system functions. These differences may be qualitative or quantitative. The data relating soft signs to learning disabilities are more questionable than the data relating hard signs to learning disabilities.


Sound-symbol Association. The ability to recognize sounds and their sources and to recognize the sounds that go with letters. Sound-symbol association is a prerequisite to reading.


Spasticity. Increased muscle tone (hypertonic), involuntary resistance of weak muscle caused by passive range of motion followed by sudden relaxation of muscle, associated with exaggeration of reflexes. Causes stiffness, awkward movements, and loss of voluntary muscle control.


Spatial Orientation. The ability to organize space in terms of the individual relating his physical self to the environment with reference to distance, size, position and direction.


SpecEd. See "special education".


Special Assistance. Specially designed instruction, teachers' aides to support classroom or laboratory instruction, taped texts, interpreters or other effective methods of making orally delivered materials available to students with hearing impairments, readers in libraries for students with visual impairments, classroom equipment adapted for use by students with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions, as well as facility modifications.


Special Education Classroom. See "Resource Room" or "Self-contained Classroom".


Special Education Coordinator. The person in charge of special education programs at the school, district, or state level.


Special Education (SPED, Speced). Instruction specifically designed to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability, including classroom instruction, instruction in physical education, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions. See also "special education programs and services".


Special Education Programs/Services. Programs, services, or specially designed instruction (offered at no cost to families) for children over 3 years old with special needs who are found eligible for such services. These include special learning methods or materials in the regular classroom, and special classes and programs if the learning or physical problems are serious.


Special Education Teacher. An individual trained as an educator of children who have mental and physical impairments of elementary and secondary school age.


Special Needs Children. 1. A general term used to label children who do not meet educational expectations and require services and resources that are different from those needed by "normal" youngsters. 2. A term used to describe a child who has disabilities or is at risk for developing disabilities who requires special services or treatment in order to progress.


Special Schools. A general term applied to segregated educational placements that only children with handicaps attend.


Specialized Instruction. An early intervention service that includes the activities that promote the acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental areas, including cognitive processes and social interaction. Also includes instructional support to the child, family, and pertinent members of the child's environment for enhancing the child's developmental progress.


Specific Learning Disability. A disorder in understanding or using spoken or written language, characterized by imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes students with conditions such as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include students who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps; mental retardation; or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage. See also "learning disability".


SPED. See "special education".


Speech. The mechanical production of sounds and words through the voice.


Speech and Language Disorders. Difficulties in communicating effectively.


Speech Audiometry. Measurement of overall performance in hearing, understanding, and responding to speech for a general assessment of hearing and an estimate of the degree of practical handicap; earphones, bone oscillators and sound field may be employed.


Speech Disorder/Impairment. Disorganization of speech. The inability to produce certain elements, faulty, or distorted performance or functions in particular sounds, letters, words or gestures are outside one's power or produced or perceived as imperfect. Examples of speech impairments are stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or voice impairment.


Speech Pathology/Speech Therapy. SLP/ST may be recommended if the patient has suffered an illness or injury which has affected speaking or hearing ability and/or language skills. The speech therapist helps the patient relearn and practice language skills. They also assist with swallowing disorders, and may recommend modified food textures or specific feeding techniques to minimize the risk of food ending up in the lungs, which can lead to pneumonia.


Speech Therapist. An individual who has been trained to work with others in speech improvement and correction. See also "speech-language pathologist".


Speech-language Pathologist. A professional educated in the study of human communication, its development, and its disorders. They conduct screenings, diagnosis and treatments for people with communication disorders. The speech pathologist may work with a number of different types of problems, including articulation errors, language deficits, vocabulary, pitch or voice problems, and alternative communication methods for individuals who are nonverbal.


Speech/Language Therapy. 1. A planned program to improve and correct speech and/or language or communication problems in people who are not thought to be able to improve without such help. 2. In reference to Part H and early intervention: instructional support to the child, family, and pertinent members of the child's environment for enhancing the child's production of speech (including developmental prerequisites) and communication skills.


SPIN. Special-needs Parent Information Network


Spina Bifida. Also called myelomeningocele, spina bifida is a disorder of the central nervous system which is apparent at birth. The bones in the spine do not close or are only partially closed and surgery to close the open area is usually required. People who have spina bifida may also have hydrocephalus or fluid on the brain. People with spina bifida may have little or no sensation in the feet, legs or hips, and limited or no bowel and bladder control. The cause of spina bifida is not known.


Splinter Skill. A particular perceptual or motor act that is performed in isolation and does not generalize to other areas of performance. If hard neurological damage or age of the learner prevent development of the sensory input system, it becomes necessary to teach splinter skills.


SSA. Social Security Act/Administration


SSBG. Social Services Block Grant


SSI. See "Supplemental Security Income".


SSDI. Social Security Disability Insurance, an income support program for persons with Social Security coverage and serious disabilities


SSI. Supplemental Security Income, an income support program for low-income persons with serious disabilities.


Standard Deviation. A statistical measure of the amount an individual score deviates from the average.


Standardized Achievement Test (SAT). A measure that is administered and scored by uniform objective procedures and for which norms have been established (prescribed routine to assure that the process is consistent) so the scores of anyone completing the test can be compared to the norms. See also "Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)".


Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. A standardized psychological test to assess intelligence. Performance is based on problem solving and developmental tasks. Originally the Binet-Simon Scales, were revised and standardized by Lewis Terman at Stanford University.


State Fiscal Year. The current fiscal year that encompasses October 1 through September 30.


State Seed. The state’s share of funding for the Medicaid program. The federal government pays about two-thirds of Maine’s Medicaid costs while the State pays the other one-third. Different departments within different parts of Maine government pay their share of the "state seed" for services provided through that department.


State Plan. A state’s Medicaid program, federally approved under Title XIX of the Social Security Act. The state plan defines which services will be covered and terms of eligibility for different types of services. While states must include certain basic services and eligibility standards in their Medicaid program, the term "state plan" often refers specifically to those other services and eligibility standards that are optional (examples: ambulance, physical therapy, prescribed drugs). In addition to basic and optional state plan services, there are other home and community-based services that require special federal approval in the form of a waiver from the regular terms of the Social Security Act. (See "waivers.")


Stereotyped Movement Disorders. Conditions that are characterized by abnormal gross motor behaviors (ties).


Stereotypical Behavior. Repetitive actions that children who have autism tend to do.


Stimuli. Objects or interactions used to encourage or stimulate development or growth. Stimuli can be auditory, motor, tactile, visual, etc.


Stimulus. That which causes a response.


Strengths. 1. The unique internal resources (things) of a family/child that include their capabilities and motivations and will assist in their development: i.e., stubborn, good gross motor skills, cognitive intactness. 2. Legal, logical, or moral force.


Stroke. Also known as “Cerebrovascular Accident” Strokes occur when there is an interruption of blood flow to part of the brain. The most common cause is the plugging of an artery inside or leading to the brain. This kind of stroke is an ischemic stroke and is the major type of stroke in elderly patients. Signs of a stroke include: sudden numbness or weakness of the body, especially on only one side, sudden confusion, difficultly speaking, difficulty seeing in one or both eyes, difficulty walking, dizziness, poor coordination, or a sudden severe headache with no known cause.


Stuttering. An interruption in the rhythm of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases, for example: cow...boy, tuh-tuh-tuh-table, or sssun. Stuttering is recognized as a language disorder.


Substance Abuse. The use of any such agents as alcohol or drugs to the degree that they become significantly detrimental to one's life and health.


Substitutions. An articulation error which occurs when the child substitutes one sound for another. The substitution frequently sounds similar to the sound being replaced, or is made in a similar manner.


Supervised Apartment. An apartment in which a person with disabilities lives independently while being provided with some needed aid and support.


Supination. Turning of the palm or foot upward.


Supine Position. Lying on one's back, facing upward.


Supplemental Security Income (SSI). A Federal Title XVI income maintenance program administered by the Social Security Administration. To be eligible you must meet certain financial and income requirements and be over 65 years of age, blind or disabled. If you are eligible, you will receive a monthly check, and become automatically eligible for the Medicaid insurance program. Because of meeting the income limits, you are usually eligible for other types of assistance through the Department of Social Services (food stamps, energy assistance, etc.).


Support Services. 1. Transportation, financial help, support groups, homemaker services, respite services and other specific services to children and families. 2. Activities and services which contribute to the enhancement of quality in vocational education programs, including activities such as dependent care services and transportation, teacher training, curriculum development, and encouraging the removal of sex stereotyping in vocational education.


Supported Employment. Competitive work in an integrated work setting with ongoing support services for individuals with the most severe disabilities for whom competitive employment: 1. has not traditionally occurred; or 2. has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of severe disability; and, 3. who, because of the nature and severity of their disability, need intensive supported employment services or extended services in order to be gainfully employed.


Supported Living. Services and supports designed to assist an individual in activities of daily living which enable that individual to live in the individual’s own home, family home, or rental unit. Services may include personal assistance, training and habilitation services, 24-hour emergency assistance, assistive technology and adaptive equipment, and support services necessary to aid an individual to participate in community activities.


Symbiotic. Emotional disorder believed to be caused by the failure of the child to make a separation or a differentiation of his ego from that of his mother; characterized by difficulty with pronouns and references to himself in the third person, repetition of phrases out of context, and frequently echolalia.


Symmetrical. Both sides equal, equal distribution.


Symptom. A manifestation of a pathological condition. Although in some uses of the term it is limited to subjective complaints, in common use "symptom" includes objective signs of pathological conditions as well.


Synapses. The region of contact between one neuron and another through which nerve impulses are transmitted.


Syndrome. A combination of symptoms which occur together and define a disease or disorder.


Syntax. The order and way in which words and sequences of words are combined into phrases, clauses, and sentences (rules of grammar).


Systemic. Pertaining to the whole body.

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